Book: A Bend in the Corner by Enugu Narsimha Reddy

November 30, 2021

English Translation: T.S. Chandra Mouli


Author:  Enugu Narsimha Reddy

Translated from Telugu into Engish by T.S. Chandra Mouli,

New Delhi

Indialog Publication  Pvt. Ltd 2020

Pp 120      250 INR

ISBN:  81-8443-064-7

When the original book, titled Moola Malupu (meaning Corner Turn) was written by author, Enugu Narsimha Reddy in 2018 in Telugu Indian language, it was rhapsodized in a hedgemonic cultural reflection of India’s colonial and post colonial historical overture. The book won the Palamooru Saahitee Paraskaram award (2018). In 2020, Dr.T.S. Chandra Mouli of New Delhi tapped on this book with an English translation, titled A Bend in the Corner. It is a collection of 62 poems in a bundle of 120 pages.

Both Reddy and Chandra Mouli are accredited authors, poets, critics and translators. Their literary acumen and established literary writing prowess are not easy on each other to bring the English translation to fruition.

In the front portal of the book, A Bend in the Corner, Reddy promulgated in a Poet’s Heart his deep following of poets Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak, Sri Sri and English poet Dylan Thomas. They brightened his poetry path.“It is like a safety valve for any creative person.” He was immensely gratified that his poetry was expanding to audiences beyond marginal periphery to boundaries beyond eclipses of Telugu language.

Reddy felt euphoric that an entire book of his poems have been translated into English. He acquiesced that his poems have relocated and avouched themselves in the outer world of English literature. Andhra Pradesh was not alone. He immensely regaled in appreciation of English translator of the book, Dr. T.S. Chandra Mouli.

Dora Sales, Senior Lecturer, University of Jaume I (Spain) unequivocally posited in a Note on a Bend in the Corner, that “Prof. Mouli’s translation impacted with respect “the cultural identity of the original, deliberately leaving certain terms untranslated, and providing information through notes to the text” His paradigm was a symbiosis of Indian English translation of Reddy’s poetry.

Chandra Mouli, as English translator of A Bend in the Corner and his 27th book published, is a prolific literary master in Indian English literature. He has in his oeuvre over 9 anthologies of poetry, 2 plays, and 5 volumes of short stories in Telugu. More than six books have been translated into English. He has accolades of several literary awards, and boasts of representing India in many international literary forums world-wide. With this magnificence in literary portraits, it is best to indulge the literary eye in A Bend in the Corner.

Take a look at …

Poem #1, Shore on the Other Side, (23)

(first four lines in the first stanza)

I am wandering

in the soil I walked along

I am collecting tunes

The poet’s mind becomes rooted with firmness on the soil he walked on. Mind at ease “collecting tunes”. Determined to cross the stream to the other side. A philosophic mind-set, embracing the environment with a cornucopia of life.

(first six lines in the second stanza)

When we leave a shore

trusting a boat is inevitable.

Not for me

to the onlookers

this journey is ecstatic.

One should trust the putti,*

Here “putti” is a telugu word for round basket vessel. The poet sees the journey across the stream as euphoric. Shows trust in crossing the stream with determination.

(last two lines in the second stanza)

Delightful shore on the other side of the river

rushes rapidly towards me!

Here the poet arrives at the other side of the stream, feeling excited. The imagery of crossing the stream with a positive outlook. A picturesque landscape.

In poem # 6, Fragrance of Flowers (33)

(first stanza)

Among narrow lanes of

faded walls that look stressed

he keeps walking.

Beyond the tar roads

busy in colourful decoration of

palatial buildings

on dusty roads purposely he walks.

The translator sees Reddy travelling with determination in the streets, imaging decorations on buildings along dusty roads along his sojourn …but he sees

(second stanza – first four lines)

Torn kites flutter on

electric lines on left and right.

Among flapping plastic covers

that look like thrown away used cotton balls …

With the translator picturing the environment in a dilapidated condition, in a sense of societal breakdown. As the poet walks …

(in the last three lines of the last stanza)

A battle began somewhere

unconscious of its own origin.

Wait for it to spread across the country.

In the deep subconscious terrain of his mind, the author expresses a longing to bring change that will ‘spread across the country’ with a ‘fragrance of flowers’.

In poem # 13, titled: Father (45), we can visualize a concatenation of circumstances in which Father becomes the nexus. Take the first stanza, thus:

Around life

reminding entangled environment

like a lightning reliant on cloud

twirling round conscience like a creeper

natural armour of love is father!

 (last three lines):

just as mother was created ,

to extend strength to mother

God sent father.

Father brings hope and faith. Chandra Mouli sustained this elegance in metaphors and similies in the translation; evocative imagery.

Look at the last stanza:

When the entire universe

attacks us as adversary camp

father alone stands by us

to march ahead.

Just like a lamp

emerging from one lamp

moulds children with paternal magnanimity.

Father becomes the backbone of survival. Chandra Mouli’s English translation did not miss a beat.

Take a read of poem # 28, Nectar of Life (65):

(first stanza)

Shukra satiated himself cheerfully with divine nectar.

swinging episodes of Nawabs

who were overwhelmed by Hukkha’s power,

several tales of drinking that forced

Heaven to descend on earth abound.

Here the author brings cultural anecdotes to speak of Shukra, a divine guru, advisor and teacher, about tales of Nawabs of the Mughal Empire. The Nawabs enjoyed a life of drinking and drugs

(second stanza: 11-13 lines)

How can one visualise old city

sans Falaknuma

or Hyderabad without Irani chai?

The people in the community enjoy Irani chai.

(second stanza: last six lines)

Chai alone stands for life, say citizens here.

It is the beverage loved by all

it is easily accessible nectar of life for all.

If one misses it for a day

or denied for a while

liveliness of all vanishes in thin air!

Here the poet tells us how members of the community enjoy chai as part of their life style.

 Poem # 59, A Bend in the Corner (113)

When it is disclosed

that a white spot noticed on body

free advice arrives

to scan the conscience within.

As the song of dove

misses the rhythm

direction follows to check

pollution of the river bund.

All investigations

to be carried out, it is said.

This is a considerate land

where massive clashes strode along

does any expression of acceptance

arrive at all?

It being a fertile field

of endless conflicts

does the crop survive ultimately?

In the twists of tricky paths

in the topsy-turvy gallops

perhaps traces of corns

of broken thorns discernible.

In the peculiar pace of

solitary scamper of individuals

can the body remain sans sun-tanned?

For exploring exclusive realms of moonlight

without caring for self and shelter

does ray of brightness bloom

on veil of darkness?

Like a sort of scare

as white handwoven woollen blanket

spreading across the body

while confirmation report

is under process after all investigations,

like a calf that strayed

staggers on looking

at the pen that collapsed,

like uncovering lungs

while spraying pesticide

in cotton field in a trance–


As one conquers a summit

and slides on a slope,

swimming across mighty rivers

as one gets trapped in irrigation canals

path invisible

in bend in corner.

The bend has to be spanned

irrespective of status of path

journey has to be sustained.

This is the title poem of the book. It spans an evocative, thoughtful, cultural, effervescent soul of the soil. The caveat lector of the full collection of poems.

In “Poet’s Heart”, author Dr. Enugu Naarsimha Reddy says:

When I have gone through the English version of my poetry I am astonished to note that the translation carried the original fragrance intact.

In “Note on A Bend in the Corner”, Dora Sales writes:

Prof. Chandra Mouli has produced a superb translation in several senses.

From the PREFACE: Dr. Chittaranjan Misra writes:

Dr. Reddy flaunts no desire to exhibit scholarship and avoids use of verbose. As a son of the soil his description revolves around friends and people he is familiar with. Love for family constructs poetic images of human relationship in a number of his poems.

A Bend in the Corner – Time to read.


NEW BOOK: Finding You A Collection of short form syllabic poems: tetractys, Fibonacci, haiku, senryu, naani & cinquain

November 17, 2021

Bibliographic information

QR code for Finding You

Title   Finding You: A Collection of Short Form Syllabic Poems: Tetractys, Fibonacci, Haiku, Senryu, Naani & Cinquain

Author          Leonard Dabydeen

Publisher     Xlibris Corporation, 2021

ISBN   1664198253, 9781664198258

Length           184 pages      E-Book $5.99  Nook $2.99  Paperback  $16.99

Subjects       Poetry › General

About the Author

Leonard Dabydeen: Guyanese-born (1948) Canadian freelance writer, critic, literary book reviewer (fiction and poetry), and Human Rights activist (Amnesty International). He is a graduate of the Univ. of Guyana and former Lecturer at the Government Teachers’ Training College in Guyana; a Licensed Paralegal (retired) under the Law Society of Ontario, and a Commissioner of Oaths and Affidavits in Ontario. He is a prolific poetry and book critic contributor to social media online, including (by JIM WILSON), Linkedin, FaceBook,, Trivenie-journal (India), Confluence South Asian (U.K.), Muse India e-journal (India), The Gandhi Way Newsletter (U.K.), Inspiration (pen: STAReye), (former) Member of the Society of Classical Poets (U.S.A,), Muse-Pie (Fib Review and Shot Glass Journal), OUR POETRY ARCHIVE (OPA), ATUNIS GALAXY, Spectrum Publishing Poetry and Art (U.K.), Asian Literary Society, POEMarium, Poetry Central, English Poets and Writers’ Association of India, Writers World Poets Corner, Gurukul, STANDS4Network,, Power Poetry,, Poetry Soup, ARC, Formal Haiku The Art of 5-7-5, Setu Bilingual Magazine (U.S.A.); Published in Muse India e-book Anthology: Beyond Corona The Silver Lining (2020), Published in Muse India e-book Anthology: Monsoon Moods, Edited by Dr. Annapurna Sharma (2019); Selected poem line in Muse-Pie Press Community Poem (2020); Life Member and Literary Critic of MetVerse Muse, Published by Dr. H. Tulsi (India); International Who’s Who Poetry Award (2012). Published author: Watching You, A Collection of Tetractys Poems, Xlibris Publications (2012); Searching For You, A Collection of Tetractys and Fibonacci Poems, Xlibris Publications (2015). He lives in Brampton, Ontario, Canada.


In Whispers About Finding You, A Collection of short-form

syllabic poems: Tetractys, Fibonacci, Haiku, Senryu, Naani &

Cinquain, authors, poets, literary critics from e-journals and

literary magazines speak to the author and his book with

unfaltering pitch and sensuality.


• Mr. Leonard Dabydeen is a prolific and compassionate poet.

His style of writing is always unique and impressive. I often get

astonished to see him selecting various topics that are global

and touch the soul of the readers. He doesn’t stick on to one

style or specific genre. As a reader, I always cherish reading

his writings that are inspiring, evocative, informative, and

thought-provoking. What I love the most in his writings is his

types of compositions. He makes sure to convey the message

with depth in meaning. This makes him a special poet to me.

‘Finding You’ is a wisely chosen title by the poet and this book

is meticulously filled with beautiful short poems like tetractys,

Fibonacci, haiku, senryu, naani & cinquain. Mr. Leonard is an

internationally renowned poet who can make the readers get

involved in the concept, key points, values, and useful message.

Finally, I would say that this book should be read by many

readers and enjoyed. “Every single poem is a precious piece of


“The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,

But I have promises to keep,


And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep.”

With Best Wishes & Regards:

Setulari Padmavathi

Head of the Department of English,


Your Space, Muse India

October 10, 2021.

• Leonard Dabydeen Sir, Guyanese-Canadian poet and

member of The Society of Classical Poets (USA), Life

Member of MetVerse Muse (India). Free-lance writer

and book reviewer; author of Watching You, A Collection

of Tetractys Poems (2012), and Searching For You, A

Collection of Tetractys and Fibonacci Poems (2015).

Had the good fortune to meet Leonard Sir on Muse India and

read his amazing poems in fascinating styles. We had regular

literary exchanges that opened up new vistas in poetry and had

many a healthy discussions on them. One thing that touched me

about his writing and his personality was his boundless love for

humanity, kindness towards all and maintain peace, no matter

what. His priorities were sorted out and that made me his fan!

I am deeply honoured to have your invaluable thoughts etched

on my book dear Leonard Sir. Thank you for being a wonderful

guide and friend on this literal journey


October 10, 2018 (Facebook)

Gomathi Mohan, Bangalore, India.

Author: When The Soul Sings, Authorspress Books (2018).

Featured in many literary anthologies. Member of MetVerse

Muse (India).


‘He felt the joy of others as his joy,

He bore the grief of others as his grief;

His universal sympathy upbore,

Immense like ocean, the creation’s load.’

– Sri Aurobindo, Savitri, Book III, Canto III, pp. 318-319

The emotional upheavals in the tranquil calmness of a poet’s

heart, when expressed genuinely and authentically in the depth of

his words, give birth to the creative genius, touching the hearts of

the readers, leaving an ineffaceable impression that continually

guides, illumines and influences every moment of their lives.

Leonard Dabydeen is one such Creative Genius whose poems

have been a source of constant inspiration and motivation for

readers all over the world. His poems are the finest examples of

‘Evolution of Poetry and Poetic Genius’, touching every aspect

of the themes from personal to sociological to global to universal.

Only a person whose heart blossoms with love for his fellow

beings can evolve to be such a remarkable creator!


As the readers plunge deep into the vast ocean of creativity

presented in Leonard Dabydeen’s poetry which he has so beautifully

presented in his books ‘Watching You’, ‘Searching For You’ and

‘Finding You’, they realize the importance of the equilibrium

between the imagination and realism which he presents as the

bouquet of colourful fragrant blossoms, the aroma of which spreads

far and wide leaving an indelible everlasting imprint.

Leonard’s poems express the human emotional and spiritual

journey presenting the emotions of love, fear, grief, sadness,

laughter, spirituality. His poetry has and shall continue to

influence and enlighten the generations to come.

With the blessings of the Divine Grace, I have been privileged to

have Leonard Dabydeen as my Guru.

When all seems lost, life gone haywire,

A mentor, a guide puts back on track,

‘The Guru’, the messenger of God irrefutably is,

A modest, a humble self-effacing ‘Divine’!

Wishing Leonard Dabydeen an extremely beautiful and successful

poetic journey!


M.A. (English), M.Ed, UGC- NET

Editor, Creative Artist, International Author & Poetess,

Book Reviewer, Translator

Author of ‘Priceless Pearls’, ‘The Ascent of A New Dawn’

‘Crossroads And Other Stories’, ‘Amma Boli’

Editor of ‘Beyond Corona: The Silver Lining’

Former Senior Lecturer


MM University, Ambala, India

Educational Consultant

Karnal, India

October 16, 2021

• Poet Leonard Dabydeen has authored ‘Finding You’ with evocative

brilliance and technical perfection in short-form syllabic poetry.

With 150 poems he has encompassed the world in multiple

themes, ranging from philosophic outlook, epiphanic moments,

terrorism, Nature’s wrath. Identity crisis of indentureship and

varied thoughts that hinge on human social experiences. The

book is a must read.

Manab Manik,

Midnapore, West Bengal, India.

Author: Shattered Dreams AND OTHER POEMS, AuthorsPress (2019);

My Poetic Offerings, Soulful Rhymes on Love, Beauty, Immortality

And Divinity, BOOKS CLINIC (2019).


Leonard Dabydeen’s first book of poetry, Watching You, was published

in 2012. At that time I wrote a poetry blog, Shaping Words, devoted

to syllabic poetry. Leonard’s collection was entirely devoted to a form

called Tetractys that has five lines with a syllable count of 1-2-3-4-10.

I was astonished and delighted at how Dabydeen used the Tetractys

form with such skill and ease, exploring the form’s expressive scope

and nuances with a deft, almost song-like, quality.

Dabydeen’s second collection, Searching for You, was published

in 2015 and was significantly larger. In this collection Dabydeen

branches out to include another form, the Fibonacci. There is an

intriguing connection between the Tetractys and the Fibonacci;

both of them, in their most common shape, have a total count of 20

syllables. In the six-line Fibonacci the syllable count is 1-1-2-3-5-8,

and as previously noted, the Tetractys is a five-line form of 1-2-3-

4-10. Dabydeen uses both of these in his second collection and the

combination of the two forms shows Dabydeen’s skill at writing

within the constraints of two related syllabic forms.

When I heard that Leonard was publishing a third collection, after

too long an absence, I discovered that Dabydeen has, once again,

expanded the range of forms he is writing in. This third collection,

Finding You, in addition to Tetractys and Fibonacci poems, also

includes Haiku, Senryu, Naani, and Cinquain. The novelist and poet

Ursula K. LeGuin wrote that a form can ‘give us a poem’. Dabydeen’s

third collection shows that this is true. Dabydeen has the remarkable

ability to enter into the realm of expression that a form offers and

then use that form for his own expressive purposes.

Dabydeen’s poetry covers a wide range of subjects and is, at the same

time, easily accessible. Overall I feel that his poetry is marked by

what I think of as a prayerful relationship to the cosmos. Some of his

poems are actual prayers that are rooted in his Hindu heritage. Others

express a sense of awe and humility in the presence of the beauty of

this world. There are also poems that are down to earth, poems that

are mournful in the face of human flaws and difficulties, and still

others that are marked by an acute awareness of the small events that

fill our days and nights.

Dabydeen is a presence in a number of online poetry forums where

he interacts with a significant number of other poets. Like many of

us, he has been encouraged, and at the same time has generously

encouraged others, on their journey in the realms of poetry. Finding

You is itself such a journey through a number of expressive forms

that offers the reader many moments of thoughtful contemplation,

insight, and encouragement.

Jim Wilson,

Works at Many Rivers Books and Tea, California

Holds a degree in Western Philosophy, U of Alaska, Fairbanks

Studied Buddhism in Korea and Japan

Former Chaplain at a prison for the criminally insane

Lives in Sebastopol, California

Published 10 books of poetry – in haiku, cinquain, sestina and other forms


Journey with SETU MAG Bilingual Journal

November 17, 2021



Gandhi Jayanti: Poems by Leonard Dabydeen

Strength does not come from physical capacity.

It comes from indomitable will. ~ Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi Jayanti

Gandhi Jayanti is an event celebration in India that marks the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi on October 2, 1869 (died in January 30, 1948). The event is celebrated around the world wherever mankind is in search for peace and non-violence among communities and nations.

Suno suno aye duniya waalon, Bapu ki ye amar kahaani
Listen, people of the world, to Bapu’s immortal story…
[Mahatma Gandhi: born Oct 2, 1869; assassinated Jan 30, 1948]

at each other
eye to eye, blinding the whole world
makes mediation so complex
for peace.

cannot resolve
territorial rights
based on our religious believes
God’s ONE.

Where hate
inflames the mind
and racism colours our
skin to scoff and scorn our canvas
seek Truth.

lesson is to
follow his legacy
stand deeply for SATYAGRAHA
in Life.

when Truth becomes
nations will relish its sweetness
for peace.

is no resolve
and racism colours our
stand deeply for SATYAGRAHA
for peace!


RACISM  Deep in the colour of my skin, I live 
Heart to heart and rumble for peace within; 
I traverse this world for freedom, but give 
Not my pride for prejudice or chagrin. 
I walk not alone, but in footsteps 
Where the journey is long, but dream is strong; 
Where civil rights are mine, with no regrets 
That civil liberty is never wrong. 
Non-violence is my definitive creed, 
Through Gandhian spirit I strive and breathe; 
For you and I are equal without plead 
Where discrimination is full of seethe. 
Assassination leaves my world a cloud, 
Racism cannot be dressed in any shroud.  ***

telling you
where to look for Truth
it speaks from your mind, and your heart.
When mind is weak, heart palpitates
and Truth becomes so

down to ground
Earth is manifold
forbid war; make peace with neighbours.
When you make war, your enemy
is your restless mind
burning hate

In the end all men have to die. He who is born
cannot escape death
.” ~ Mahatma Gandhi – Speech
at Prayer Meeting, New Delhi, January 15, 1948.

They who live by their own chagrin, acquire
moth that spiral in their mind without peace;
fetch hate, animosity as desire
never to see our world a happy place.

Often times by foolish wit denigrate
our hopes and dreams far beyond squint of eye,
they criticize and also peculate
day by day they usher grandiose lie.

Step by step we massage Gandhian thoughts
and follow in faith a path righteous
ahimsa our kindled lamp against krauts
satyagraha our stand prestigious.

Walking in Mahatma’s footpath joyous
we build our future world so enormous.

Bapu ji (died Jan. 30, 1948)

I was
thirteen days
old and crying
Mama said Nathuram shot Bapu ji.

Bapu ji clasped his hands and smiled at him
nod in silence
said, ‘Ram, Ram’.
Eyes closed



Footprints on the sands of time
glow with birthmark
each glittering step
unshaken and challenging
not by yielding to temptation
but thirst for truth
for the awakening of men
for soul-searching
in glimpses of the Transvaal
for monsoon moments

in vestibules of maharajas
turnstiles in South Africa
under a mango tree in India
ricocheting in global rumbles
for peace and non-violence
and as the wind whispers
in a stormy weather
where wars create bedrocks
for sleepless journeys
I clasp my hands

in solemn gesture
as if it were the beginning
of the end
namaste, Gandhiji.



October 20, 2021


Dear Friend’: Read Mahatma Gandhi’s Letters to Adolf Hitler | Time

Mahatma Gandhi at Ramgarth, India in 1939 Germanys Adolf Hitler 1939

September 1, 1939



To Herr Hitler

As at Wardha,

C. P.,


Dear Friend,

Friends have been urging me to write to you for the sake of humanity. But I have resisted their request, because of the feeling that any letter from me would be an impertinence. Something tells me that I must not calculate and that I must make my appeal for whatever it may be worth.

It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to a savage state. Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success? Any way I anticipate your forgiveness, if I have erred in writing to you.

I remain,

Your sincere friend,

M. K. Gandhi

Herr Hitler,




October 1, 2021





The deities of spotless actions and reactions are always inspirational for human beings to surge ahead in their life inspite of the travails weighing down their lives from different quarters. The deities referred to have always advocated for the rights of the righteous people in the society. The triumph of good over evil is the didactic lesson that should be imparted to human beings so much so that they do have the mental fortitude, forbearance and patience to face up to all eventualities in life fair and square.

~Book: Essence of Sanatan Dharma Timeless and Eternal by Damyantee Devi Dabydeen, Authorspress Books (2020).


Cijo Joseph Chennelil,

Head of the English Department

Kristu Jyoti College

Changanassery, Kortayam, Kerala, India.




September 18, 2021




in the sky

inclusive colors

resplendent glow in harmony

why do we bow our heads to faint such magnificence?

METVERSE MUSE 64th to 66th TRIPLE ISSUE Sept 2021

September 7, 2021


40. Dr. Chandrasekhar K.S. Canada

41. Dr. Eric Poersch* -do[1]42. Mr. Jack Baum -do[1]43. Ms. Jean Carson -do[1]44. Mr. Leonard Dabydeen -do[1]45. Mr. Peter Austin –


Leonard Dabydeen

CONFLUENCE – South Asia Perspectives UK

September 1, 2021

Issue February 2021

page 16 : BOOK REVIEW – A poem that painted the sky by Indira Babbellapati
REVIEWER: Leonard Dabydeen


August 20, 2021


[for the people of Afghanistan]


With Herculean heart people will rise.

They will carry this flame of injustice,

To mark the atrocities they despise.

In crowded places where life is no bliss,

Huddled together without families;

They will carry this flame of injustice.

With cruel displacement calamities,

Life will not be same as in their country;

Huddled together without families.

Long will be their dream of fecundity;

As people of Afghanistan, they know.

Life will not be same as in their country.

This road will be long, as the children grow,

And gather much strength in passage of time.

As people of Afghanistan, they know.

In steady course they will erase the crime;

With Herculean heart people will rise

And gather much strength in passage of time,

To mark the atrocities they despise.


August 16, 2021


[A Villanelle Poem]

Let not hopes and dreams be thistle and thorn.

Or make land-slide oddity in old age;

When the twain shall meet, greater joy is born.

For hopes and dreams come in all shapes and turn.

They can fickle the brain, no matter being sage;

Let not hopes and dreams be thistle and thorn.

Hopes can be stardust fruits of apricorn

Dreams can be that mystic titular page

When the twain shall meet, greater joy is born.

In cusp, nurturing goals as unicorn

There is no age limit to discourage

Let not hopes and dreams be thistle and thorn.

Where expectation is greater as sworn

There are sometimes a sweet flowering guage

When the twain shall meet, greater joy is born.

When the grand act is point of no return

And expectation runs like high voltage

Let not hopes and dreams be thistle and thorn

When the twain shall meet, greater joy is born.